So much for prison reform: More than 40 percent of prison inmates had 5-10 prior incarcerations

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Seventy-eight percent of inmates had previous incarcerations.

Forty-two percent had 5-10 or more incarcerations.

The vast majority of prison inmates have multiple previous arrests and incarcerations. The vast majority have histories of violence.

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The data below from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is from 2016. It was released in December 2021. It establishes the characteristics of prison inmates.

Readers are encouraged to view the full report; I added the most relevant numbers.

I offer two sections of background data before I summarize the report.

Background-Research Issues

I use “Editor’s Notes” throughout this article to add context. However, the majority of what’s below uses BJS verbiage.

It’s not unusual for researchers to use older data sets to gain insight into current conditions. Because of large numbers, statistics from BJS don’t change that much from year to year (with some exceptions).

Statistics in this report are primarily based on self-report data collected through face-to-face interviews with a national sample of state and federal prisoners.

There are times where interviews of offenders conflict with other data (i.e., drug use of inmates an undercount when compared to blood tests of those arrested).

Inmates are suspicious of researchers and their assurances that the information they collect won’t be used against them. Some of those issues are addressed in the report.

As concerning as the statistics are as to arrests, it’s a vast undercount of criminality. Only 40 percent of violent crimes are reported to law enforcement and the great majority of reported crimes do not end in arrest.

There are events that alter the characteristics of the state and federal prison populations; there is a 40 percent decrease in admissions to state and federal prisons in 2020 due to COVID and criminal justice reform.

I assume that those with repeat violent histories were given priority for prison admissions. If the survey below was conducted today, you would have different results.

Most of my focus is on state inmates because of the numbers when compared to the much smaller federal system and percentages arrested for violent crimes (few in federal prisons are there for violent crimes).

Recidivism data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics is necessary for context. Regardless of the characteristics of prison inmates, the vast majority recidivate.

Background-The Most Common Understanding Of Inmate Recidivism

The most common understanding of recidivism is based on state data from the US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, stating that two-thirds (68 percent) of prisoners released were arrested for a new crime within three years of release from prison, and three-quarters (77 percent) were arrested within five years.

Within 3 years of release, 49.7% of inmates either had an arrest that resulted in a conviction with a disposition of a prison sentence or were returned to prison without a new conviction because they violated a technical condition of their release, as did 55.1% of inmates within 5 years of release.

A ten-year study from the Bureau of Justice Statistics shows that 82% were arrested at least once during the 10 years following release. Offenders committed well over two million new crimes. About 61% of prisoners released in 2008 returned to prison within 10 years for a parole or probation violation or a new sentence, Inmate Recidivism.

Summation of the BJS Report (details below):

The overwhelming number of inmates are not first-time offenders.

Over 40 percent of inmates had five to ten prior incarcerations which substantiates prior findings that a minority of offenders commit the majority of crimes.

The vast majority had multiple arrests, approximately 13 percent were in prison for their first arrest.

37 percent were on parole or probation at the time of their crime.

Males make up the great majority of inmates.

Most in state prisons were convicted of violent crimes.

The average age of state prisoners was 39.

State prisoners were likely to be black (34%) or white (32%).

Most didn’t graduate from high school.

Most were not married.

Most serve less than two years. Editor’s note: Recent data from BJS indicate that most violent offenders serve less than three years.

94 percent had homes at the time of the arrest.

Most came from single-parent homes.

Thirty percent of state and federal prisoners reported that they had 5 or more incarcerations prior to the offense for which they were being held, including 12% who had 10 or more prior incarcerations.

Less than a quarter of prisoners reported no history of prior incarcerations (22%).

Among state and federal prisoners, males were more likely than females to have extensive incarceration histories prior to the offense for which they were held. About 31% of male prisoners reported 5 to 9 (19%) or 10 or more (12%) prior incarcerations. In comparison, 24% of female prisoners reported 5 to 9 (14%) or 10 or more (10%) prior incarcerations.

Sex and Age

The majority of all prisoners in the United States (93%) were male, and this finding was consistent among both state (93%) and federal (94%) prisoners.

In state prisons, the distribution of male and female prisoners remained unchanged between 2004 and 2016.

The average age of all prisoners in the United States was 39.

The majority of state prisoners were ages 25 to 44 (58%): about a third were ages 25 to 34 (32%) and a quarter were ages 35 to 44 (26%).

Another 19% of state prisoners were ages 45 to 54.

Prisoners held in state prison in 2016 were older than those held in state prison in 2004.

The average age of state prisoners was 39 in 2016, compared to 35 in 2004. During that time, the percentage of state prisoners who were age 44 or younger declined from 81% to 69%.

The largest decline occurred among state prisoners ages 18 to 24, from 17% in 2004 to 10% in 2016.

While prisoners age 65 or older (3%) accounted for the smallest age group in 2016, the percentage was about three times that observed in 2004 (1%).

The average age of federal prisoners was 40. More than a third of federal prisoners were ages 35 to 44 (34%), about 5% were ages 18 to 24, and about 3% were age 65 or older.

Race and Ethnicity

State prisoners were likely to be black (34%) or white (32%). One in 5 state prisoners were Hispanic (21%). About 2% of state prisoners were either American Indian or Alaska Native (1%) or Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander (1%).

More than 1 in 10 state prisoners identified with two or more races (11%).

Among federal prisoners, nearly 4 in 10 were Hispanic (37%), while 3 in 10 were black (32%) and 2 in 10 were white (21%). Less than 5% of federal prisoners were either American Indian or Alaska Native (2%) or Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander (2%).

Nearly 7% of federal prisoners identified as two or more races.

Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity

The majority of prisoners in the United States (96%) identified as straight, which was consistent among state (95%) and federal (97%) prisoners.

Among state prisoners, about 1.4% identified as gay or lesbian, and another 2.5% identified as bisexual. Findings among federal prisoners were similar: 1.1% identified as gay or lesbian, and 1.1% identified as bisexual.

Education

Among all prisoners in the United States in 2016, more than 6 in 10 had completed less than a high school degree prior to their admission to prison.

Marriage

The majority of all prisoners in the United States reported that they had never married (58%). State prisoners were more likely to report that they had never married (59%) than to report being divorced (19%), married (14%), separated (5%), or widowed (3%).

Those Violent

State prisoners were more likely to be incarcerated for a violent offense (56%). 58 percent of male state inmates were incarcerated for a violent offense. 13 percent of federal inmates are in for a violent offense.

Almost 4 in 10 State Prisoners Had A Criminal Justice Status

More than a third of all prisoners in the United States in had a criminal justice status at the time of the arrest for the offense for which they were incarcerated. Criminal justice status at arrest includes being on probation, being on parole, or having escaped from custody.

Almost 4 in 10 state prisoners had a criminal justice status at the time of the arrest.

Editor’s note: If you added offenses committed while on bail, the percentage would be much higher.

Time Served

State prisoners were most likely to report that they served 2 years or less in prison since their admission.

In state prisons, more than half of females (55%) had been incarcerated for 2 years or less, compared to more than a third of males (35%). Male state prisoners (21%) were twice as likely as female state prisoners (10%) to have been held for more than 10 years at the time of the interview.

Special Conditions Of Sentences

More than three-quarters of state prisoners had at least one special condition that was required as part of their prison sentence (77%).

Courts can order special conditions at the time of sentencing, such as monetary, programmatic, or behavioral requirements. State prisoners most commonly reported payment of court costs (60%) as a special condition, followed by fines (37%) and victim restitution (33%).

Drug or alcohol treatment (16%) and drug testing (12%) were less commonly reported. Less than 10% of state prisoners were required to participate in sex offender treatment (8%) or psychiatric or psychological counseling (8%) as a special condition.

Editors note: Most of the imposed conditions follow the inmate after release on parole or mandatory release.

Housing

Prisoners in the United States most commonly reported living in a house or an apartment (94%) during the 30 days prior to the arrest for the offense for which they were incarcerated.

Editor’s note: There are advocates who state that homelessness is a major correlate of crime.

Family

Most prisoners reported growing up in a home with at least one parent: 35% reported that they primarily lived with both parents, while 47% grew up in a single-parent home, primarily with their mother (41%).

Conclusions

The vast majority of prison inmates have multiple previous arrests and incarcerations. The vast majority have histories of violence. Candidate Biden and advocates state that they want to cut the prison population in half (future articles). They claim that this can be done without impacting public safety. The data presented challenges their assertions.

‘Enough already’: Sig Sauer announces major backing of national ‘re-fund the police’ campaign

Editor note: For those looking for a quick link to get in the fight and support the cause, click here.

NEWINGTON, NH – Law Enforcement Today is pleased to share that Sig Sauer, highly respected and immensely popular leader in the firearms industry, has joined us as a corporate sponsor in our campaign to “Re-Fund the Police.”

As a Law Enforcement Today reader, you know that we have put forth a campaign to back the blue and support re-funding efforts, while calling attention to both the adverse effects of defunding the police, and the positive effects that our dedicated protectors in law enforcement create every single day.

In this campaign, we put out a call for individual and corporate sponsors to join us in this mission.

Sig Sauer, with its honorable and lengthy history of supporting law enforcement, answered that call with a generous donation, standing with us and with our brothers and sisters in blue.

From its humble beginnings as a German gun company in 1751 and a Swiss wagon factory in 1853 who merged in 1875 to its current status as a firearms industry leader, Sig Sauer has remained synonymous with expert, state-of-the art craftsmanship and reliability. 

Sig Sauer has also cultivated a close working relationship with law enforcement over the decades of its existence, marrying its expertise with the needs of those who serve.

As the Sig Sauer website states:

“It is the largest member of a worldwide business group of firearms manufacturers that includes J.P. Sauer & Sohn and Blaser, Gmbh. in Germany.

This global network of companies gives SIG SAUER a world-class firearms knowledge base, unparalleled design expertise, and extensive manufacturing capacity, enabling the company to respond quickly and effectively to changing market conditions and the needs of its military, law enforcement, and commercial markets worldwide.”

So much for prison reform: More than 40 percent of prison inmates had 5-10 prior incarcerations
Sig Sauer Academy. Photo courtesy of Sig Sauer.

In addition to state-of-the art equipment such as firearms, ammunition, optics, suppressors, and air guns, Sig also provides top-of-the line training for law enforcement officers and others.

Sig Sauer Academy, located in Epping, NH, offers firearms and tactics training to everyone from first-time gun owners to the most elite levels of law enforcement and military.  This facility “features state-of-the-art indoor and outdoor ranges, tactical training areas, urban environments, a shoot house, a maritime training area, and a force-on-force village.”

We recently sat down with Tom Taylor, Chief Marketing Officer and Executive VP of Commercial Sales, to learn more about Sig Sauer’s decision to back our campaign to “Re-fund the Police.”

Taylor told us:

“The minute we heard the concept, it resonated with us here at Sig Sauer, because it’s so disgusting to us, the whole “defund the police” mentality….

“The police were already shorthanded, there’s never enough training, there’s never enough equipment, there’s never enough people, there’s never enough resources.  

“And then you throw at them this ‘defund the police’ mess, to put it politely.” 

He added:

“It just disgusts us, when we see specific incidents of police agencies like Austin, who have gone so all-in to this concept of taking resources away from an operation that is already underfunded. 

“Who is going to help save lives when they’re needed?  It’s harder and harder to get police officers where they’re needed, on time, because of a lack of resources….

“You hear the 911 calls where people are calling in the middle of a riot in Atlanta, and they say, we’re really sorry but there are no police officers to send to your aid right now.  

“It’s disgusting.”

Taylor explained further that raising money is itself important, but the plans to raise awareness and share the truth with the public are equally significant.

He continued:

“I think it’s important to educate the public that there’s a problem….

“No matter how much money we raise in this effort, it’s also very important that we let the world know that the police need resources and they need money.”

So much for prison reform: More than 40 percent of prison inmates had 5-10 prior incarcerations
Sig Sauer Academy. Photo courtesy of Sig Sauer.

Taylor added that a further advantage to educating the public would be to improve the reputation of law enforcement as a career.

He told us:

“We also need to try to re-engage young people to be police officers, because that used to be such a noble and admirable thing, and now it’s becoming so difficult to be a police officer, and to have young people aspire to be in law enforcement.

“We want to communicate to the world that it’s ok to be a cop.”

Taylor expanded further upon Sig Sauer’s ties with law enforcement, saying:

“It’s in our DNA…. We work closely [at Sig Sauer Academy] with military and law enforcement…. 

“It’s a big part of who our Academy personnel are; they are all current or former military and cops… and so they are such thought leaders for our company for both training and equipment and importantly, mindset. 

“When we are developing a new product, we go talk to them.”

He added:

“Our CEO [Ron Cohen] served in the Israeli military for five years, and our dedication to supporting law enforcement and military runs so deep in this company…. The moment I mentioned the ‘refunding the police’ concept to our CEO, he immediately wanted to support this cause.”

Taylor concluded:

“We absolutely want to let the world know how much we support the thousands of police agencies and hundreds of thousands of officers who carry our products, and those who don’t….

“It doesn’t matter what product they use, they need our support.

“We are doing this because we have so much respect for our police officers, and it is very disappointing that a part of our society allowed something called ‘defund the police’ to become part of our culture, truly sad.”

So much for prison reform: More than 40 percent of prison inmates had 5-10 prior incarcerations
Sig Sauer Academy. Photo courtesy of Sig Sauer.

In addition to its generous financial support, Sig Sauer will also be throwing its own marketing efforts behind the “Re-Fund the Police” campaign, amplifying the message on their social networks.

To learn more about Sig Sauer products and training, visit Sig Sauer at their website, SigSauer.com.  

You can also follow Sig Sauer on their Facebook page, their Twitter feed, their Instagram account, and their LinkedIn account.

Law Enforcement Today is immensely grateful for Sig Sauer’s strong stand to support all those who protect and serve, and we look forward to working together with Sig to “Re-Fund Our Police” and expand public understanding of the the daily good deeds of our protectors in blue, as well as the adverse effects of defunding the police.

Do you want to join our private family of first responders and supporters?  Get unprecedented access to some of the most powerful stories that the media refuses to show you.  Proceeds get reinvested into having active, retired and wounded officers, their families and supporters tell more of these stories.  Click to check it out.

LET Unity

“Re-Fund the Police”: Law Enforcement Today launches nationwide campaign for Americans to back the blue

 

Editor note: In 2020, we saw a nationwide push to “defund the police”.  While we all stood here shaking our heads wondering if these people were serious… they cut billions of dollars in funding for police officers.  And as a result, crime has skyrocketed – all while the same politicians who said “you don’t need guns, the government will protect you” continued their attacks on both our police officers and our Second Amendment rights.

And that’s exactly why we’re launching this national crowdfunding campaign as part of our efforts to help “re-fund the police”.

For those looking for a quick link to get in the fight and support the cause, click here.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA – You back the Blue.  You support the police.  You quietly buy an officer a cup of coffee at your local coffeehouse.  You bring homemade cookies to your local police station.  You make it a point to thank an officer when you see one out in public.  

You watch the news, aghast to see crowds of anti-police protesters and rioters committing acts of violence and massive property damage.  You pray daily for the Blue family.

And yet, you may feel quite alone.

Politicians and the mainstream news media would have you think that police support is at an all-time low.

Some of you may have found it necessary to take down your Thin Blue Line flags from your house, or to scrape off the Thin Blue Line sticker from your vehicles, due to the potential for violent retaliation by those who hate the police.

Yes, it is the loudest voices that are the ugliest.  They revile and attack those who back the Blue.  They call, “Defund the Police!” at every turn, fueled by the lie that police officers are racists who are out to kill.

But you are actually in excellent company in your support of the blue family.

According to a Gallup poll, 85% of Americans support law enforcement.  That means supporters of the Thin Blue Line are 285 million strong.

So much for prison reform: More than 40 percent of prison inmates had 5-10 prior incarcerations
85% of Americans support Law Enforcement

That would be 285 million who, like you, refuse join in the calls to defund the police.

And that means you are in the company of those who have logic and reason on their side.

After all, we at Law Enforcement Today bring you stories daily of exploding crime in police-defunded areas such as Austin, Portland,  New York City, or Los Angeles.

Homicide rates since defunding are up 58% in Atlanta, up 533% in Portland, and up 37% in Philadelphia.

Shootings in post-defunded New York City are up 64%, and they are up 51% in Los Angeles and up 18% in Chicago.

In addition, you have also followed our disturbing and often tragic stories of attacks on police officers in the era of police defunding.

Felonious attacks on police are on the rise, as documented by the FBI’s Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Data Collection.  

According to LEOKA:

“The 50 law enforcement officers feloniously killed in the first 8 months of 2021 represent a 51.5 percent increase compared to the 33 officers killed during the same period in 2020.”

So much for prison reform: More than 40 percent of prison inmates had 5-10 prior incarcerations
370 officers gave their lives in the line of duty in 2020

Also thanks to defunding, police departments across the country now lack training, resources, and equipment.  Ironically, calls for additional training in cultural awareness, de-escalation, and use of force often have to go unheeded due to the lack of financial resources.

Another irony is that the push to do away with less-lethal options such as Tasers and tear gas will simply lead to more fatal police shootings.

These alarming stories and statistics indicate beyond a doubt that defunding the police is absolutely the wrong move for this great country.  You know this, yet you and 285 million other voices are all too often silenced by social pressures as well as physical threats of violence.  

You are even told, “Silence is violence,” when it comes to refusing to stand against law enforcement.

Your voice matters, and you need to be heard.

As Law Enforcement Today National Spokesman Kyle Reyes points out:

“Americans have stood by in disbelief as this ‘defund the police’ movement has spread across America and ravaged our communities.  

“We’ve watched our cities burn, our officers be attacked and violence skyrocket.  

“It’s time to come out of the twilight zone.  It’s time to fight back.”

Do you want to join our private family of first responders and supporters?  Get unprecedented access to some of the most powerful stories that the media refuses to show you.  Proceeds get reinvested into having active, retired and wounded officers, their families and supporters tell more of these stories.  Click to check it out.

LET Unity

Law Enforcement Today, the nation’s largest police-owned media outlet, has developed a way to make your voice heard and oppose those who would seek to remove funding from those who protect and serve.

It’s called the “Re-Fund the Police” campaign.

Reyes explains:

“We wanted to make the “Re-fund the Police” campaign something that everyone- whether you can spare $1 or $1 million – can be a part of.

“People will donate to politicians all day long in hopes that person will get elected and possibly make a difference.

“We are asking for people to come forward and support those who make a difference and save lives every single day.”

Through your generous donations, Law Enforcement today will direct a media and advertising blitz to rally other Americans who, like you, are done with attacks on law enforcement, both physical and financial.  

Here’s what the funds go towards:

  1. We’ve assembled a “strike team” of researchers and reporters who will delve deeply into the devastating impact that defunding the police has on communities and families.  They’re going after not just the “leaders” in Congress who are pushing to defund the police… but they’re exposing everyone from the local politicians and city councils who are behind it.  They’re also tracing the money of exactly who is funding this “defund the police” movement.
  2.  We will focus on publicizing all the negative effects of defunding police while expressing support for our brothers and sisters in blue.  The advertising blitz will be a show of support for police officers all across America.
 

In addition, we will be sending a team of reporters into our communities to share positive stories of law enforcement, stories which are consistently ignored by the mainstream media.

As a thank-you for your generosity in standing strong for the blue family, we are offering access codes for Law Enforcement Today’s Wounded Officer documentary and Border Crisis documentary.  In addition, we offer additional perks such as stickers and Thin Blue Line face masks or yard signs.

Donors are also able to honor or memorialize a member of the blue family.

For those who cannot afford to contribute, we invite you to be a part of a nationwide chain of prayer warriors.  

You can join our prayer chain along with other supporters who are willing to pray for our brothers and sisters in blue.  

So much for prison reform: More than 40 percent of prison inmates had 5-10 prior incarcerations
We support those who protect and serve.

Also, when you sign up for our newsletter, we will keep you informed on how we are continuing to back the Blue, and bring you the stories the mainstream media will not touch.

Now to small businesses who are sick and tired of watching our cities burn as the “defund the police” movement spreads.

For business donors, we are pleased to offer a unique opportunity to make a difference in police departments across the country.

Reyes explains:

“We wanted to make sure small businesses could get in the fight, so we are rolling out the ‘adopt a police department’ program.”

Your business donation will be used to cover stories in the community of your choice, and expose those who are attempting to defund the police.  Those stories, if you choose, will also include a thank you to your business and a link back to your business website.  

In addition, your generous business donation will go toward advertising campaigns that highlight the negative effects of demonizing and defunding the police.

So much for prison reform: More than 40 percent of prison inmates had 5-10 prior incarcerations
We’ve got your 6.

This will give you the opportunity to show to millions of Americans that, unlike “woke” anti-police organizations, you support and appreciate law enforcement.

Reyes points out:

“Corporate America rallied around the Black Lives Matter movement, donating hundreds of millions of dollars to a campaign that brought widespread looting and destruction in our cities.  

“This is an opportunity for businesses to show America that law and order and keeping people safe still means something to them.”

Please join your voice with Law Enforcement Today in this campaign to support all those who protect and serve us.

We invite you to visit the Re-Fund the Police website for further information.

If you have questions, or you want to start your own fundraising team, feel free to email us at [email protected]

It’s time to get in the fight.

______________

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Make sure you click “following” and then click “see first” so you don’t miss a thing!  (See image below.)  Thanks for being a part of the LET family!
 
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