The Wickersham Commission and the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice recommended that higher education is a means to better professional policing. Research studies on police officers performance that have earned a college degree provide evidence of better overall job performance and better advancement opportunities then their colleagues without a college degree.
Research conducted by Jason Rydberg and Dr. William Terrill from Michigan State University provides evidence that police officers with a college degree, significantly reduces the likelihood that educated officers will use force as their first option when gaining compliance. The study also discovered evidence of officers with a higher education background also makes it more likely they will demonstrate the creativity and problem-solving skills needed to make a community-oriented policing model succeed.
Slow To Change
Despite the research and benefits to the profession, why is the police profession slow at adapting higher educational standards and requirements for all officers? Only a few innovative and progressive law enforcement agencies have instituted educational requirements for officers despite the evidence. These agencies have reported better pool of police candidates, increased professionalism, stronger community relations, and independent problem solving skills.
None of the studies indicated education is a replacement over police street experience. The studies indicate that officers with degrees are likely going to make better decisions independently based on their educational experience when dealing with confrontations.
Personal Benefits of Education
The studies indicate education has the following benefits on officer’s abilities and performance:
- Better behavioral and performance characteristics
- Better skilled with independent decision making and problem solving skills
- Better skilled at articulating their thoughts
- Greater aptitude for innovative thinking
- Improved adaptability skills
- Fewer on-the-job injuries and assaults
- More proficient in technology
- Enhanced grant writing skills
- Improved budget and management skills
- Fewer departmental disciplinary actions and internal investigations
- Less likely to be involved in unethical behavior
- Less likely to use force as the first response
- Enhanced report writing skills
- Displays maturity for age
- Better at discovering extra resources
- Demonstrated enhanced department responsibilities
- Less use of sick time (work ethic and seeing the big picture)
- Greater acceptance of minorities (diversity and culturally awareness)
- Decrease in dogmatism, authoritarianism, rigidity and conservatism
- Improved communication skills (oral & written)
- Fewer formal citizen complaints
- Promotion of higher aspirations
- Better adapted to accepting critical feedback on job performance
- Enhancement of minority recruitment efforts
- Intellectual personal growth
- Better adapt to retirement and second career opportunities
Continuing Your Education, While You Serve
Going back to school will take some planning, commitment, and sacrifices. Universities and colleges have made it easier to attend college than ever before. Attending traditional classes can be tough when officers are working rotating shifts, with in-service training, and court appearances. Sitting in a traditional classroom several times, a week during the semester is difficult for law enforcement officers. Studying via distance learning (online) or taking hybrid classes is a good alternative. Hybrid classes are a combination of traditional classroom and online classes.
Experienced police officers have a few ways to shorten the length of time it takes to earn a 4-year degree by looking for programs that offer Prior Learning Assessment (PLA). The PLA program is way to demonstrate prior learning through a portfolio process that will award college credit on topics such as patrol procedures, criminal investigation, criminal law, introduction to policing, and other police related topics.
Taking exams through the College Level Examination Program (CLEP) is a great way to earn college credit. CLEP is the credit-by-examination program and is another way to shorten the length of the time it will take to earn a degree. The CLEP exams are offered at most local community colleges. The CLEP is a 90-minute examination ranging on topics such as U.S. History, Spanish, and Algebra. CLEP offers a wide range of other General Education topics as well. Pass the CLEP exam, and earn college credit towards the General Education requirements for an undergraduate degree.
The Outlook for Educated Officers
Law enforcement has changed in the last 30 years. With the adopting of new technology, computer skills are a basic requirement to function and communicate in a modern technical society. Understanding forensic science and how this evidence can strengthen a case, as well as the technical skills to understanding ways to fight cybercrime will take educated detectives using a multi-disciplined approach to combat today’s crimes.
With the trend of citizens with video cameras watching uniformed police officers perform their duties, the research indicates that educated officers will act with more desecration, tolerance, and restraint when confronting resistance. By police officers continuing their education they make themselves a current and relevant asset to their departments and society.
Modern police departments need highly educated people capable or leading change in an evolving technology oriented society.
Mark Bond has worked in law enforcement and has been a firearms instructor for 30+ years. His law enforcement experience includes the military, local, state, and federal levels as a police officer and criminal investigator. Mark obtained a BS and MS in Criminal Justice, and M.Ed in Educational Leadership w/ Summa Cum Laude Honors. As a lifelong learner, he is currently pursuing a doctoral degree in education with a concentration in distance education. Mark is currently an assistant Professor of criminal justice at American Military University & American Public University and is one of the Faculty Directors in the School of Public Service & Health.